Cancer

The story of GARP: a potential target for cancer immunotherapy

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. Despite significant advances in therapies for this particular cancer, the five-year survival rate is 12 percent, according to the ...

Cancer

Infertility is linked to small increased risk of cancer

A study of over 64,000 women of childbearing age in the USA has found that infertility is associated with a higher risk of developing cancer compared to a group of over three million women without fertility problems, although ...

Overweight & Obesity

Overweight kids at higher risk for blood clots as adults

Overweight children may be more likely than normal-weight children to develop life-threatening blood clots as adults, a new Danish study suggests. The good news is, getting to a healthy weight by age 13 eliminated the extra ...

Cancer

Treatment to a T? Taking a 'BiTE' out of lung cancer

Immune cells called T cells are key components in the fight against cancer. However, they sometimes struggle to recognize cancerous cells or to launch an appropriate response against them. T cell activity can be tweaked to ...

Medications

Origin of resistance to lung-cancer drug discovered

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Nature Communications that AXL, a protein belonging to the class of receptor tyrosine kinases, causes some lung cancer patients to have an intrinsic resistance to the drug osimertinib. ...

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Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue and, eventually, into other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women, and is responsible for 1.3 million deaths annually, as of 2004. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing (including coughing up blood), and weight loss.

The main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), also called oat cell cancer, and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Nonsmokers account for 15% of lung cancer cases, and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution including secondhand smoke.

Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy. This is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy. Treatment and prognosis depend on the histological type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the patient's general wellbeing, measured by performance status. Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery, whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This is partly because SCLC often spreads quite early, and these treatments are generally better at getting to cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body.

Survival depends on stage, overall health, and other factors, but overall 14% of people in the United States diagnosed with lung cancer survive five years after the diagnosis.

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