Cardiology

ACC/AHA guidance for preventing heart disease, stroke released

The choices we make every day can have a lasting effect on our heart and vascular health. Adopting a heart healthy eating plan, getting more exercise, avoiding tobacco and managing known risk factors are among the key recommendations ...

Neuroscience

Healthy fats improve nerve function in obese mice

Swapping dietary saturated fats for monounsaturated fats reverses nerve damage and restores nerve function in male mice, finds new preclinical research published in JNeurosci. These data support further investigation of diets ...

Genetics

Can a genetic test predict if you will develop type 2 diabetes?

When I got home after work I was surprised to find my husband and three children sitting by the television and watching the news. They had just learned that the direct to consumer genetic testing company 23andMe was now offering ...

Diabetes

Mentally tiring work may increase diabetes risk in women

Women who find their jobs mentally tiring are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in the European Journal of Endocrinology. The study findings suggest that mentally draining work, such as ...

Diabetes

Strength training may reduce the risk of diabetes in obesity

Strength training over a short time period can reduce fat stores in the liver and improve blood glucose control in obese mice, according to a study published in the Journal of Endocrinology. The study reports that strength ...

Health

Soft drink companies copy tobacco playbook to lure young users

Tobacco conglomerates that used colors, flavors and marketing techniques to entice children as future smokers transferred these same strategies to sweetened beverages when they bought food and drink companies starting in ...

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Diabetes mellitus type 2 – formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes – is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The classic symptoms are excess thirst, frequently having to urinate, and constant hunger. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. Obesity is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. If blood sugars are not lowered by these measures, medications such as metformin or insulin may be needed. In those on insulin there is typically the requirement to routinely check blood sugar levels.

Rates of diabetes have increased markedly over the last 50 years in parallel with obesity. As of 2010 there are approximately 285 million people with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Long-term complications from high blood sugar can include heart attacks, strokes, diabetic retinopathy where eye sight is affected, kidney failure which may require dialysis, and poor circulation of limbs leading to amputations. The acute complication ketoacidosis is uncommon unlike in type 1 diabetes, nonketonic hyperglycemia however may occur.

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